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OUTREACH September 2009

September Meeting NOTE CHANGE IN DATE

         Oklahoma Space Alliance will meet at 3:00 p.m. on Saturday, September 12 at the Koszorus' house in Norman. Prospective members are also welcome. Their house is at 514 Fenwick Court in Norman.
         To get the meeting either: (1) Take the Robinson Street west exit off I-35. Proceed west to 36th Street where you will turn left, and go south until you turn left on Rambling Oaks (about half a mile north of Main Street). Fenwick Court is the third street on the left. Tom's house is the last on the left side, or (2) Take the Main Street west exit off I-35, proceed west past the Sooner Fashion Mall, and turn right at 36th Street, and go north until you turn right on Rambling Oaks (about half a mile north of Main Street). Fenwick Court is the third street on the left. Tom's house is the last on the left side.


  1. Introductions (if necessary)
  2. Read and approve agenda
  3. Read and approve minutes and reports of activities
  4. Old Business
    1. Moon Landing Display at Norman Public Library
    2. Report on ISDC
    3. Start Up Kit for Chapters in Second Life
    4. Research funding
    5. Social Media (Tweeter, Facebook, etc.)
    6. A New OSA Logo
    7. Treasurer’s Report
    8. World Space Day (Sputnik Anniversary)
    9. 50th Anniversary of Manned Space Flight (Yuri's Night 2011)
    10. Space Solar Power
  5. Read and discuss mail
  6. New Business
  7. Create New Agenda

Minutes of August Meeting

         Oklahoma Space Alliance met at the Koszorus’ house on August 15, 2009. In attendance were Tom and Heidi Koszoru, Claire McMurray, John Northcutt and Syd Henderson
         Janice Francis-Smith is no longer at the Journal-Record and her e-mail is bouncing, so she needs to be removed from the e-mail list.
         Remove Space Week projects from agenda since Space Week has passed.
         Clifford McMurray is going on a cruise to Antarctica. It’s an expensive trip, but Neil Armstrong will be on board and Kip couldn’t resist. Since he needs to raise money, he won’t be available for time-intensive projects.
         Tom would like to take a course on grant writing. Courses in this are available at OU. Can Syd do it?
         Claire brought an e-mail from the Traveling Space Museum.
         Still no minutes from the Chapters Assembly at the International Space Development Conference. However, the Virtual Chapters Startup Kit is now being assessed. Tom is awaiting disks on Space Solar Power so he can study it before he talks.
         Add an item on Social Media to the Agenda. This would include Facebook, Twitter, MySpace and some aspects of Second Life.
         October 4, the 52nd anniversary of the launch of Sputnik 1, is on a Sunday this year. Can we possibly do something at the Cheddar Ranch Observatory during the week of the anniversary, possibly on October 10?
         Would the Stafford Museum be interested in doing something for Yuri’s Night 2011, the 50th anniversary of manned space flight? Or maybe a space film in the Norman Public Library? A possibility is the Conoco Auditorium in Bizzell Library at Oklahoma University. Syd should check with the Film and Video Studies Department at OU.
         The Constellation report still hadn’t come out at this meeting.
         There is a space-elevator climber competition.
         We can do a display on near-earth asteroids that come between the Earth and the Moon.
         Our Logo is starting to look decrepit and old. We should start making designs for a new one and need ideas. Add “Logo” and “Treasurer’s Report to Agenda.
         Since Claire and Kip will be at the Winfield Music Festival on September 19, we move the September meeting to September 12.

Between Meetings Activities

         Tom, John, Claire, Kip and Syd gathered at the Norman Public Library on August 1 to take down the Apollo 11 anniversary exhibit. We donated this to the Stafford Space Museum in Weatherford, and they picked it up in August 26. [Correction: Claire took the exhibit to the Museum.]
         Syd underwent surgery for prostate cancer on August 27, and any silly errors in this newsletter should be attributed to the influence of drugs.

Viewing Opportunities for Satellites (September 10 – October 17, 2009)

         You can get sighting information at www.heavens-above.com/. Heavens Above allows you to get Station data for 10 day periods, and gives you a constellation map showing the trajectory of the satellite. If you go to the bottom of the map page, it will give you a really detailed map with the location at 10 or 15-second intervals, depending on detail. In fact, the detailed charts will even show you the tracks against maps of the constellations, which should help you if you are familiar with the night sky.
         Sky Online (the Sky & Telescope web site) carries station observation times for the next few nights at skyandtelescope.com/observing/almanac. Note that with the addition of the solar panels, the magnitude of the Space Station can be as bright as magnitude -2.7, making it brighter than all the stars other than the Sun, although magnitude -1 to -2 is more likely. The Hubble Space Telescope can get up to magnitude 1.5, which is brighter than the stars in the Big Dipper, although, since it is lower in the sky, it is a bit more difficult to see. 
         Missions to the Space Station may change its orbit. At the moment, Space Shuttle Discovery is about to return to Earth. Be sure to check Heavens Above or www.jsc.nasa.gov/sightings/ before going out to watch.  The last mission to the Hubble Telescope has already occurred so its information should be reliable.

HST  September 18, 2009
Time           Position    Elevation
  9:11 p.m.      224°           18°
  9:12             206             28
  9:13             179             31
Vanishes into Earth’s shadow

HST  September 19, 2009
Time           Position    Elevation
  9:09 p.m.      226°           22°
  9:10             206             29
  9:11             178             32
Vanishes into Earth’s shadow

HST  September 20, 2009
Time           Position    Elevation
  9:07 p.m.      226°           22°
  9:08             206             29
  9:09             177             31
Vanishes into Earth’s Shadow

Station  September 27, 2009
Time           Position    Elevation
  8:09 p.m.      304°           17°
  8:10             294             34
  8:11             228             65
  8:12             154             35
  8:13             144             17

Station  September 29, 2009
Time           Position    Elevation
  7:23 p.m.      302°           17°
  7:24             290             34
  7:25             221             61
  7:26             157             34
  7:27             146             17

Station  October 11, 2009
Time           Position    Elevation
  6:44 a.m.      207°           17°
  6:45             191             32
  6:46             133             50
  6:47               78             32
  6:48               63             17

         Pass times are from Heavens Above
         Key: Position is measured in degrees clockwise from north. That is, 0° is due north, 90° is due east, 180° is due south, and 270° is due west.  Your fist held at arm's length is about ten degrees wide. "Elevation" is elevation above the horizon in degrees. Thus, to find the International Space Station at 6:46 a.m. on October 11, measure four and a third fist-widths south of east (in other words, almost due southeast), and measure five fist-widths above the horizon.
         All times are rounded off to the nearest minute except for times when the satellite enters or leaves the shadow of the Earth. The highest elevation shown for each viewing opportunity is the actual maximum elevation for that appearance.
         J-Pass provides a service called J-Pass Generator, which will e‑mail you sighting information for the next three days for up to ten satellites. For more information, go to science.nasa.gov/Realtime/JPass/PassGenerator/.

Space News

            The Indian Space Research Organization announced August 29 that they had lost contact with the Chandrayaan 1 lunar orbiter at 20:00 UT on August 28 (August 29 in India). The spacecraft was launched in October of 2008 and had operated successfully since November. Its star sensor failed last July, which made it difficult to maintain its orientation. Although the spacecraft was designed to last two years, it had already met more than 90% of its objectives.

            The Planetary Society is putting together an experiment to travel on board the Phobos-Grunt mission that will be launched next month. The experiment, called LIFE (Living Planetary Life Experiment) contains a collection of Earth organisms to see if they can survive a trip to Mars and back, as a test of the “transpermia” hypothesis that life can travel from planet to planet by micrometeorite. Since part of Phobos-Grunt’s mission is to gather soil from Mars’ moon Phobos and return it to Earth, LIFE has a round-trip ticket. The full length of the mission is 34 months.
            LIFE will carry ten types of organisms, four of them from the domain Bacteria, three from the domain Archaea and three from domain Eukaryota. “Domain” here denotes the highest-level division of life, above “kingdom.” Bacteria and Archaea are microorganisms without nuclei, with the distinction between the two domains being the very different cellular chemistry. Eukaryota is all living organisms having nuclei in their cells. This includes the plant, animal and fungus kingdoms and a large number of other phyla of organisms with nuclei, such as amoebas and brown algae (seaweed). The organisms were selected for the likelihood of surviving the journey. For instance, Methanothermobacter, despite its name, is an archaean, and lives in high-temperature environments. Bacillus subtilis is a bacterium which is famous for its ability to form spores which can survive acid, heat and salt. (There are two subspecies selected.) Of the eukaryotes, Saccharomyces cervisae is a species of yeast used in baking bread and brewing beer, hence represents the fungi. Arabidopsis thaliana, the mouse-ear cress, is a plant widespread throughout Eurasia and was the first plant to have its genome sequenced. Representing the animal kingdom are tardigrades (water bears), tiny organisms famous for their ability to survive extreme conditions, including temperatures from liquid helium to boiling water, high levels of radiation, years of desiccation and pressures from a thousand atmospheres to high vacuum. In short, they’re more likely to survive a nuclear holocaust than even cockroaches, and they’re considerably more attractive.

Sky Viewing

         The bright “star” in the eastern sky at sunset is Jupiter, which is currently shining at magnitude -2.8, which is as bright as Jupiter ever gets. Jupiter was at opposition in August and is visible all night. On the night of September 2 – 3, all four moons were either in front of or behind Jupiter or in Jupiter’s shadow, making them all invisible (unless you had a good enough telescope to see a moon transiting Jupiter’s disk). Jupiter’s moons only pull this simultaneous vanishing act every ten years or so. Jupiter will continue to be the dominant planet in the evening sky for the rest of the year.
         Jupiter is in the constellation Capricornus, as is Neptune, which, at magnitude 7.8, is not visible to the naked eye. There were star chart on page 55 of the September issue of Sky & Telescope with directions for finding Neptune and Uranus and the asteroid Juno. There are also finder charts online at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/highlights/41561382.html.
         Uranus is just below the Circlet in Pisces, which is conspicuous enough to make finding Uranus easier than usual. Uranus is still an inconspicuous magnitude 5.8. If you continue in the same direction about the same distance you may be able to spot the asteroid Juno, which is an unusually bright magnitude 7.7 in mid-September. In other words, Juno appears slightly brighter than Neptune. Uranus is at opposition on September 17 and Juno on September 21.
         Most of the interesting sky viewing this month is before sunrise.
         Mercury is currently close to the Sun at sunset, hence can’t be seen. However, this will change dramatically toward the end of September when it will be eight degrees above the eastern horizon a half-hour before sunrise. It will be about a fist-width below Venus. Mercury will be at greatest elongation on October 6, when it will be magnitude -.6 and six degrees below Venus. Two degrees below and to the left of Mercury is Saturn.
         Venus is the bright (magnitude -3.9) morning star rising about three hours before the sun. Venus is moving away from us as it approaches its superior conjunction with the Sun in January. By the end of October it will only be ten degrees above the horizon at the end of twilight.
         Saturn is nearing its September 17 conjunction with the Sun, hence is not visible. On September 4, the rings of Saturn were turned edgewise to the Earth for the second time this year, but since it was hidden in the sunset, this really wasn’t visible. Saturn will begin to become visible in October, when it undergoes two interesting conjunctions. On the night of October 8, Saturn will pass only 0.3 degrees north and to the left of Mercury. Mercury will be magnitude -0.8 and Saturn a more challenging 1.1, low in the east before sunrise. On October 13, Saturn will pass a half-degree north of Venus, making it very easy to find.
         Mars is finally becoming more visible. At the moment, it is rising about 1:00 a.m. and shines at magnitude 1.1 near the feet of Gemini. By October 12, Mars, Castor and Pollux will be in a straight line. Mars is the brightest of the three, followed by Pollux and Castor. By the end of October, Mars will be in the middle of the Beehive Cluster in the constellation Cancer and shining at magnitude 0.5.
         Primary sources for “Sky Viewing” are the September and October issues of Sky & Telescope and Astronomy and www.SkyandTelescope.com. I also check up some details on Wikipedia and astronomy texts.

Calendar of Events

         September 12: Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 3:00 p.m. at the Koszoru house.
         September 16: Uranus is at opposition.
         September 17: Saturn is in conjunction with the Sun.
         September 20: Mercury is in inferior conjunction with the Sun.
         September 30: MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury.
         October: Russia launches Phobos-Grunt, a sample return mission to Martian moon Phobos. A Chinese Mars Orbiter will be part of the mission. The Planetary Society’s LIFE experiment will also be on board (see “Space News”). For more information, visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phobos-Grunt.
         October 5: Mercury is at greatest western elongation, 18° from the Sun (hence can be seen before sunrise).
         October 8: Mercury is 0.3° south of Saturn.
         October 13: Venus is 0.6° south of Saturn.
         October 14: [Tentative] Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority Meeting, 1:30 p.m., Commission Room at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation Building, 200 NE. 21st. Street, Oklahoma City
         October 17: [Tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 3:00 p.m. Location to be announced.
         October 21: Peak of Orionid meteor shower.
         October 29: Venus is in inferior conjunction with the Sun.
         November 1: Launch of WISE, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Satellite. This satellite is 500 times as sensitive at IRAS. For more information, see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide‑field_Infrared_Survey_Explorer 
         November 5: Mercury is in superior conjunction with the Sun
         November 12: [Tentative] Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority Meeting, 1:30 p.m., Commission Room at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation Building, 200 NE. 21st. Street, Oklahoma City
         November 12: Launch of Atlantis to the Space Station
         November 17: Peak of Leonid meteor shower.
         November 21: [Tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 3:00 p.m. Location to be announced.
         December 9: [Tentative] Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority Meeting, 1:30 p.m., Commission Room at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation Building, 200 NE. 21st. Street, Oklahoma City
         December 14: Peak of Geminid meteor shower.
         December 18: Mercury is at greatest eastern elongation, 20° from the Sun (hence can be seen after sunset).
         December 19: [Tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 3:00 p.m. Location to be announced.
         December 21: the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae begins its total eclipse. This will last until March 12, 2011. This is the longest known eclipse of any eclipsing binary.
         January 2010: Annular solar eclipse visible in central Africa.
         January 11, 2010: Venus is in superior conjunction with the Sun.
         January 27, 2009: Mercury is at greatest western elongation, 25° from the Sun (hence can be seen before sunrise).
         January 29, 2010: Mars is at opposition with magnitude -1.3.
         February 2010: Launch of Endeavour to the Space Station
         February 11, 2010: Launch of Atlantis to the Space Station. This is last scheduled mission for Atlantis.
         April 8, 2010: Launch of Discovery to the Space Station. This is the last scheduled launch for Discovery.
         May 31, 2010: Launch of Endeavour to the Space Station. This is the last scheduled mission for any space shuttle.
         May 2010: Japan launches the Venus Climate Orbiter (aka Planet‑C) to Venus. Web page is www.jaxa.jp/projects/sat/planet_c/index_e.html.
         June 2010: Hayabusa returns to Earth with a sample of asteroid Itokawa.  This will be the first asteroid sample returned to Earth. Web site is www.isas.jaxa.jp/e/enterp/missions/hayabusa/index.shtml.
         July 10, 2010: The Rosetta comet probe passes asteroid 21 Lutetia.
         July 11, 2010: Total solar eclipse in southern Chile and Argentina.
         August 20, 2010: Venus is at greatest eastern elongation, 46° from the Sun (hence can be seen after sunset).
         September 21, 2010: Jupiter is at opposition. This is the closest Jupiter will come to Earth in the next 20 years, about 370 million miles.
         October 29, 2010: Venus in inferior conjunction with the Sun.
         December 2010: Japan’s Venus Climate Orbiter arrives at Venus.
         December 21, 2010: Total eclipse of the Moon, visible just after midnight in North and South America.
         January 8, 2011: Venus is at greatest western elongation, 47° from the Sun (hence can be seen before sunrise).
         March 18, 2011: MESSENGER goes into orbit around Mercury.
         June, 2011: Total eclipse of the Moon, visible in South America and most of Eastern Hemisphere.
         August 2011: Launch of the Juno mission to Jupiter. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juno_(spacecraft) or http://juno.wisc.edu/ for details.
         October 2011: Dawn probe orbits Vesta. See dawn.jpl.nasa.gov/  or en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawn_Mission for details.
         October -December 2011: The Mars Science Laboratory is launched. See marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/ for details. [Moved from October 2009]
         October 2011 – April 2012: Dawn probe orbits Vesta.
         December 10, 2011: Total eclipse of the Moon. This one is at its best in Russia, eastern Asia, Australia, Alaska and the Yukon, but the early part of the eclipse will be visible in the rest of North America.
         Sometime in 2012: Russia launches the “Luna-Glob” mission which will deploy 13 mini-probes upon the lunar surface.
         March 3, 2012: Mars is at opposition at magnitude -1.2. This is the worst opposition for the next twenty years.
         April 2012: Dawn probe leaves orbit around Vesta for Ceres.
         June 6, 2012: Venus transits the Sun's disk.  The early part of this will be visible from the United States, but the full transit will only be visible from the western Pacific Ocean, eastern Asia, eastern Australia, and eastern Indonesia including New Guinea.
         Fall 2012: The Mars Science Laboratory rover lands on Mars. See marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/ for details.
         June 2013: Earliest date for the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope.
         August 2013 (approximate): The European Space Agency/JAXA BepiColombo Mercury Orbiter is launched. Home page is sci.esa.int/science-e/www/area/index.cfm?fareaid=30.
         December 30, 2013: Earliest launch date for India’s Chandrayaan II. This mission will include a lunar rover. For more information, visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandrayaan-2.
         August 2014 - December 2015: The Rosetta space probe orbits comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. In November, 2014, it will release the Philae lander. See September 5, 2008 for website information.
         Sometime in 2015 or 2016: Launch of SIM PlanetQuest (aka the Space Interferometry Mission). This mission was originally supposed to have been launched in 2005 and has been delayed at least five times. It was recently moved from 2012. For more information, visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Interferometry_Mission.
         February 2015: Dawn space probe arrives at Ceres. Operations are scheduled to continue through July. Dawn may continue on to other asteroids if it is still operational.
         July 14, 2015: The New Horizons probe passes through the Pluto-Charon system. The New Horizons web site is pluto.jhuapl.edu/.
         Sometime in 2016: ESA launches the ExoMars Mars Rover. For more information, visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exomars.
         July 2016-2020:  The New Horizons probe visits the Kuiper Belt.
         August 21, 2017: The next total solar eclipse visible in the United States, on a pretty straight path from Portland, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina.  St. Louis is the biggest city in-between.
         August 2019 (approximate) BepiColombo arrives at Mercury orbit.
         April 8, 2024: A total solar eclipse crosses the US from the middle of the Mexico-Texas border, crosses Arkansas, southern Missouri, Louisville, Cleveland, Buffalo and northern New England.
         August 12, 2045: The next total solar eclipse visible in Oklahoma.  This one is also visible in Salt Lake City, Denver, Little Rock (again), Tampa Bay and New Orleans.


         Some insight on Nichelle Nichols (Uhura in the original Star Trek) and her role in recruiting women astronauts.

Hi Claire,
         Re: Sally Ride.  According to my sources: days after Nichelle's PSA aired, NASA received over 8,000 requests for applications. 1649 requests came from women and over 1,000 came from ethnic minorities. From that pool NASA recruited America's first six female astronauts, three of America's first black astronauts as well as an Asian-American astronaut. Sally Ride was one of the first to be asked to come to Houston for interviews and within about a year after the broadcast, she was asked to stay in 1978.
Nichelle has never claimed to have "discovered" Sally Ride per say but she could have.  I vaguely remember hearing Sally say that she saw a NASA notice on a college dorm room wall and responded from that but even so, it was through Nichelle's efforts that America discovered Sally Ride and the others. No single person has done more to put American women in space then Nichelle Nichols.
         Years before joining NASA, Nichelle championed the idea of women and minorities in space when only a few in power thought it was a good idea! Nichelle's boy friend was a Boeing Space Systems executive and she had many contacts in government who she leaned on. Even after Congress passed an equal rights bill for women working for the government in 1972, no one there was supporting women in space. Blacks in space was a non-starter. That same year, the shuttle got a green light for funding but there was no green light for women or minorities. Nixon and then Ford both passed on the concept. It was Jimmy Carter, in 1977, who entertained the notion and she was asked to join NASA for that project.
         How to implement the concept would be critical. She insisted that the NASA appeal be made on TV to specifically capture blacks and she volunteered herself and her Uhura character to be the subject of the PSA. No one at NASA was media savvy but, luckily, Nichelle had marketing ideas as well. She secured the Star Trek studio set and suited up in her old Lt. Uhura costume. Getting into that costume might have been her greatest feat since she hadn't worn it for almost 10 years! Nichelle even had a hand in writing her lines.  All of this she did for free. After the PSA aired, Nichelle was tasked with finding out who the promising candidates were. She read over hundreds of applications and then took part in the interviews as a part of the Selection Committee.
         She does lay claim to helping "her three boys:" Bluford, McNair and Gregory becoming astronauts and later Mae Jemison but the fact is that Sally, Shannan, Rhea and the other first American women in space owe a lot to a single female who, today gets little recognition for what she accomplished.
         I hope you get a chance to convey these facts at your NSS meeting.  You can also tell your group that members of the Los Angeles City Council, upon reading my email blast, will make a motion sometime soon to officially honor Nichelle for a life time of achievement!

Best regards,

Ivor Dawson, President 
Traveling Space Museum, Inc.

Space-Related Articles

         “Epsilon Aurigae: Astronomy’s Longest-Running Mystery Show!” by Robert Zimmerman, Astronomy, October 2009, pp. 48 – 53. Epsilon Aurigae is a notorious eclipsing binary with a period of 27 years, of which the eclipse lasts about two years, more than a year of it being “total.” Whatever is eclipsing it must be almost two billion miles across, and apparently has a hole in the center. And the length of the eclipses vary, with minimum brightness being a full magnitude less than maximum. So what is the object eclipsing the star?
         The leading candidate is a disk of material surrounding a companion star (hence the hole in the middle). However, a star has never been detected, and there is still the mystery of how the length of eclipses can vary.
         Each generation of astronomers points their new instruments at Epsilon Aurigae, and the next one is getting ready. There is an array of six infrared telescopes (the CHARA array) at Mount Wilson which form an interferometer with an effective radius of 820 feet. This has been used to look at the surfaces of Alderamin and Altair and to look closely at the eclipsing binary Beta Lyrae whose stars are so close that they exchange gases.

“Ice Age Impact,” by Ivan Semeniuk, Sky & Telescope, September 2009, pp. 20 – 25. Was the extinction of North American megafauna 13,000 years ago caused by the impact of a giant comet? There is some evidence of a sudden drop in temperature lasting about 1400 years, and a lot of nanodiamonds, which are generally indicative of an impact. On the other hand, the timing approximately agrees with the arrival of the Clovis hunters, which, combined with the climate change, is a much easier extinction cause to accept.

Oklahoma Space Alliance Officers, 2009 (Area Code 405)

Tom Koszoru, President                                        366-1797 (H)
Claire McMurray, Vice-President/Update Editor   329-4326 (H) 863-6173 (C)
Syd Henderson, Secretary & Outreach Editor       321-4027 (H)
Tim Scott, Treasurer                                              740-7549 (H)

OSA E-mail Addresses and Web Site:

claire.mcmurray at sbcglobal.net (Claire McMurray)
T_Koszoru at cox.net (Heidi and Tom Koszoru)
sydh at ou.edu (Syd Henderson)
ctscott at mac.com (Tim Scott)
lensman13 at aol.com  (Steve Galpin)
dmcraig at earthlink.net (Nancy and David Craig).
         E-mail for OSA should be sent to sydh@ou.edu.  Members who wish  their e-mail addresses printed in Outreach, and people wishing space-related materials e-mailed to them should contact Syd.  Oklahoma Space Alliance website is chapters.nss.org/ok/osanss.html. Webmaster is Syd Henderson.

Other Information
          Oklahoma Space Industrial Development Authority (OSIDA), 401 Sooner Drive/PO Box 689, Burns Flat, OK 73624, 580-562-3500.  Web site www.state.ok.us/~okspaceport.
          Science Museum Oklahoma (former Omniplex) website is www.sciencemuseumok.org. Main number is 602-6664.
          Tulsa Air and Space Museum, 7130 E. Apache, Tulsa, OK  74115.
Web Site is www.tulsaairandspacemuseum.com.  Phone (918)834-9900.
          The Mars Society address is Mars Society, Box 273, Indian Hills CO 80454. Their web address is www.marsociety.org.
          The National Space Society's Headquarters phone is 202-429-1600.  The Chapters Coordinator is Bennett Rutledge 720-529-8024.  The address is:  National Space Society, 1620 I (Eye) Street NW Ste. 615, Washington, DC 20006.    Web page is www.nss.org.  
          The Planetary Society phone 626-793-5100. The address is 65 North Catalina, Avenue, Pasadena, California, 91106-2301 and the website is www.planetary.org. E-mail is tps@planetary.org.
          NASA Spacelink BBS  205-895-0028.  Or try www.nasa.gov.  .
          Congressional Switchboard 202/224-3121.
           Write to any U. S. Senator or Representative at [name]/ Washington DC, 20510 (Senate) or 20515 [House].


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          National Space Society has a special $20 introductory rate for new members ($35 for new international members).  Regular membership rates are $45, international $60.  Student memberships are $20.  Part of the cost is for the magazine, Ad Astra.  Mail to: National Space Society, 1620 I (Eye) Street NW, Washington DC 20006, or join at www.nss.org/membership. (Brochures are at the bottom with the special rate.) Be sure to ask them to credit your membership to Oklahoma Space Alliance.
          To join the Mars Society, visit.  One-year memberships are $50.00; student and senior memberships are $25, and Family memberships are $100.00.    Their address is Mars Society, Box 273, Indian Hills CO 80454.

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